Places in the Northwest Territories | Gallery, Videos, & Profile 🇨🇦

Flag of Northwest Territories, Canada
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NORTHWEST TERRITORIES

les Territoires du Nord-Ouest

Canadian Provinces and Territories
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Name Origin

when Rupert’s Land and the North-Western Territory were joined, they became the North-West Territories, describes their geographic location in Canada

Population

~ 45,000

Main Languages

Predominantly English (~ 78%). Dogrib or Tłı̨chǫ is the most prevalent indigenous language (~ 4%). Other official languages are: Chipewyan, Cree, French, Gwich’in, Inuinnaqtun, Inuktitut, Inuvialuktun, North Slavey, and South Slavey. Mostly spoken by small portions of the population.

Capital & Largest City

Yellowknife

Location

Northwestern Canada, a federal territory in the general Arctic region. Mostly located on the mainland with some territory on large islands in the Arctic Archipelago. Has coastline on the Arctic Ocean.

Biogeography

Nearctic Realm

Parts of Canada’s taiga (mostly plains and shield forests), Taiga Cordillera mountains, and Arctic tundra. Major lakes include Great Slave Lake (deepest in North America) and Great Bear Lake (largest lake fully within Canada).


Gallery Images & Videos: Places in the Northwest Territories

northern lights (aurora borealis) in the snowy forests near Yellowknife, Canada
Yellowknife – kwan fung
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Great Slave Lake shores and blue skies in Yellowknife, Northwest Territories
Jack L
Virginia Falls, Nahanni National Park Reserve, place in the Northwest Territories, Canada
Virginia Falls, Nahanni National Park Reserve – Mike Beauregard
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exterior Our Lady of Victory Catholic Church, Inuvik, on a snowy day
Our Lady of Victory Catholic Church, Inuvik – dawn
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Nionep'ene Lake in Naats'ihch'oh National Park, place in Northwest Territories, Canada
Nááts’įhch’oh National Park – Paul Gierszewski
Hornaday River and canyon in Tuktut Nogait National Park, place in the Northwest Territories
Tuktut Nogait National Park – Paul Gierszewski
jagged ice patterns on the frozen surface of Great Slave Lake, Northern Canada
Great Slave Lake – Phillip Grondin
a sunset / sunrise over the frozen expanse of Great Slave Lake, place in the Northwest Territories
buck82
landscape of scattered forest and plains in the taiga of Northwest Territories, Canada, Wood Buffalo National Park
Wood Buffalo National Park – Dru!
autumn colors and forests along the banks of a river in Northwest Territories, Canada, Wood Buffalo National Park
Scott Lough
taiga plains of the Northwest Territories, with flooded sections and lakes, near the Dempster Highway
Tania Liu
falls colors of grasses and lichens on the rolling hills of Northwestern Canada near the Dempster Highway
near the Dempster Highway – Tania Liu
bison walking near the water and a forest in Fort Providence, town in the Northwest Territories
Scott Lough
town of Fort Providence covered in snow with a church on the side, place in Northwestern Territories, Canada
Fort Providence – Leslie Philipp
tepees on the snow-covered shores of Great Bear Lake, northwestern Canada
Great Bear Lake – Sahtu Wildlife
rushing waterfall at Twin Gorges Territorial Park, Hay River, a place in the Northwest Territories
Twin Gorges Territorial Park, Hay River – Mike Tidd
an iceberg with ship remains ahead of it in the Northwest Passage of Arctic Canada
Northwest Passage – Roderick Eime
icebreaker ships sailing through the icy waters of the Northwest Passage, a section of the Northwest Territories, Canada
Coast Guard News
a colorful purple and pink sunset over the Mackenzie River near Fort Simpson in the Northwest Territories
Mackenzie River – Fort Simpson Chamber of C
Church of Our Lady of Good Hope - interior, a place in Fort Good Hope, Northwest Territories of Canada
Church of Our Lady of Good Hope, Fort Good Hope – mattcatpurple

Places in Newfoundland and Labrador – Profile & Gallery 🇨🇦

A quick profile, images, and recommended videos to discover Newfoundland & Labrador


Flag of Newfoundland and Labrador

NEWFOUNDLAND and LABRADOR

/NEW-fen-land-AND-LA-bruh-dor/ * /NOO-fin-lend-AND-LA-bri-dor/

listen

Canadian Provinces and Territories map, Newfoundland and Labrador highlighted in red
satellite map of Newfoundland and Labrador province

Name origin

from earlier name Terra Nova, “new land” in Portuguese and Latin, later adapted into English as Newfoundland

for Portuguese sailor, João Fernandes Lavrador

Population

<520,000

Main Languages

Predominantly English (~ 97%). Local variety is known as Newfoundland English.

Capital & Largest City

Saint John’s

Location

Eastern Canada (easternmost province) and part of the Atlantic region. Mostly located on the island of Newfoundland and the mainland section called Labrador, with many smaller islands.

Biogeography

Nearctic Realm

Parts of Canada’s Eastern boreal shield forests (especially on Newfoundland), taiga forests (especially in Labrador), and Arctic Cordillera mountains. The Smallwood Reservoir system in Labrador is the largest body of water.


Gallery of Places in Newfoundland & Labrador

view of St. John's, capital of Newfoundland and Labrador, at night with lights reflecting on the sea
St. John’s – Erik Mclean
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basilica in the city of St. John's, Newfoundland
Russ Quinlan
colorful houses and buildings viewed from across the harbor in St. John's, Canada
Dheera Venkatraman
the harbor and colorful architecture on the hills of St. John's city, Newfoundland and Labrador
Asmaa Dee
panorama of Signal Hill with views of the ocean, St. John's, Newfoundland
Signal Hill – Zach Bonnell
view of Signal Hill from a hillside and near pine tree, Newfoundland
Seán Ó Domhnaill
view of icebergs and the sea from the coast of Twillingate, eastern Canada
Twillingate – Robert Ciavarro
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odd-shaped black home in the rocky fields of Fogo Island, Newfoundland
Fogo Island – Timothy Neesam
lone house at sundown surrounded by wet plains and tides, Fogo Island
Timothy Neesam
stilted inn on a sunny day with views of the fields and ocean on Fogo Island, eastern Newfoundland
Zach Bonnell
the red and brown stones and snowy mountains with a stream and waterfall, the tablelands in Newfoundland and Labrador
the Tablelands – mrbanjo1138
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Western Brook Pond, Gros Morne National Park, iconic place in Newfoundland
Gros Morne National Park – VisitGrosMorne
a sod-covered wooden chapel in Norstead near L'Anse aux Meadows
Norstead near L’Anse aux Meadows – Douglas Sprott
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lighthouse and rocky shores at Capr Bonavista, Newfoundland
Cape Bonavista – Paul Gorbould
dark clouds at sunset in the town of Bonavista, a place in Newfoundland and Labrador
town of Bonavista – Jamie McCaffrey
church in the town of Trinity, eastern Newfoundland, Canada
town of Trinity – Robert Ciavarro
rocky shores and crashing waves on the Bonavista Peninsula
Bonavista Peninsula – Gary Paakkonen
man hiking in the forests along the Bonavista Peninsula with rocky cliffs and formations in the ocean ahead, Newfoundland
Wallace Howe
Atlantic puffins on the grass in Witless Bay, place in Newfoundland
Witless Bay – Richard Droker
waterfall falling from the forest into the ocean over red cliffs, Witless Bay in Newfoundland and Labrador province
Jim Sorbie
grassy cliffs and bird sanctuary overlooking the ocean, Cape St. Mary's, Newfoundland
Cape St. Mary’s – mrbanjo1138
view from canon at Castle Hill overlooking the town of Placentia, place in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada
Castle Hill, town of Placentia – Vicky TH
a bridge over a grassy creek in Terra Nova National Park, Newfoundland
Terra Nova National Park – Product of Newfoundland
arched rock formation on the pebbled beaches of Arches Provincial Park, Newfoundland in Canada
Arches Provincial Park – Michael Leland
twisted tress and forests overlooking the green waters and beach of coastal Newfoundland
Zach Bonnell
lighthouse and buildings at Port-au-Choix, Newfoundland coast
Port au Choix – Rod Brazier
lighthouse and trail up the hill in Cape Spear, place in Newfoundland and Labrador
Cape Spear – jessica
whale tail and ocean ahead of the shores in Battle Harbour, Labrador
Battle Harbour – echo8
historic lighthouse on a cloudy day in Point Amour, place in Labrador, Canada
Point Amour – Kerron L
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the rushing tides of Churchill Falls, Newfoundland and Labrador province
Churchill Falls – Douglas Sprott
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towering mountains  and fjords viewed from above in Torngat Mountains National Park, place in northern Labrador, Canada
Torngat Mountains National Park – DJANDYW.COM AKA NOBO

Profile & Gallery of Places in Alberta (Calgary – Edmonton) | Earth’s Face

CALGARY

/KAL-ger-ee/ * /KAL-guh-ree/

listen

EDMONTON

/ED-muhn-TUHN/ * /ED-min-TIN/

listen

satellite map of the city of Calgary, Alberta
satellite map of the city of Edmonton, Canada

Name origin

Edmonton: originally Fort Edmonton, a fur trading post, named after Edmonton, England, the birthplace of a founding governor, Sir James Winter Lake

Calgary: named for the hamlet of Calgary, Scotland

Population

Edmonton: City <981,000 – Metro <1,321,000

Calgary: City <1,336,000 – Metro <1,392,000

Location

Edmonton: Central Alberta, aspen parklands region

Calgary: Southern Alberta, foothills/prairies region

Calgary is along the Bow River and the Elbow River. Edmonton is along the North Saskatchewan River.


Cities of Alberta Image Gallery: Calgary & Edmonton

a main square with colonial buildings and horse drawn carriage, Calgary's Heritage Park and village
Heritage Park, Calgary – Bernard Spragg
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the wonderland sculpture in downtown Calgary, Alberta
Wonderland sculpture – Davide Colonna
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a scene with skyscrapers and the wonderland sculpture on the streets of downtown Calgary, Canada
Nataliia Kvitovska
interior view of the Peace Bridge in Calgary
Peace Bridge, Denisse Leon
the Peace Bridge at evening over the Bow River leading to downtown Calgary
Robert Montgomery
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footbridge from Prince's Island Park with view of the Calgary skyline
Prince’s Island Park – Richard Carter
the Calgary Tower at night with lights, Alberta, Canada
Calgary Tower – asweseeit.ca CANADA
riders on horseback holding Canadian flags during the Calgary Stampede
Calgary Stampede – Leif Harboe
bronco riding at a rodeo during the Calgary Stampede
Sean Robertson
exterior of knox united church in downtown Calgary
Knox United Church – Bill Longstaff
ceiling of the chinese cultural centre in Calgary
Chinese Cultural Centre – Ricky Leong
a penguin swimming in water at the calgary zoo
Calgary Zoo – Bernard Spragg
black and white of studio bell centre, a place in calgary
Studio Bell – Michael Brager Photography
an autumn trail in fish creek provincial park, Canada's biggest urban park
Fish Creek Provincial Park – Bernard Spragg
fort calgary exterior in the snow
Fort Calgary – Bernard Spragg
the devonian gardens within the CORE shopping centre, Calgary, Alberta
Devonian Gardens – M Cheung
CORE Shopping Centre exterior and busy street in central Calgary
CORE Shopping Centre – Andres Alvarado
the Central Library in Calgary interior architecture
Central Library – Bilal Karim
view of Calgary skyline from the Bow River
Bow River – Bernard Spragg
stephen avenue in the evening with some light decorations, Calgary
Stephen Ave – Ayrcan
walking bridge over a wetland area in outer Calgary
Ahmed Zalabany
street art designs on a building in Calgary, CANAda
Toni Reed
interesting buildings and skyscrapers from street view at night in Calgary
Ryunosuke Kikuno
Hawrelak Park and Edmonton skyline
Hawrelak Park – Kurayba
neon sign museum at dusk in Edmonton, Alberta
Neon Sign Museum – WherezJeff
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pyramids of muttart conservatory in Edmonton, Canada
Muttart Conservatory – Mack Male
old streetcar and building in Fort Edmonton Park
Fort Edmonton Park – Richard Laperche
west edmonton mall interior with bridge and canal, major place in Alberta
West Edmonton Mall – GoToVan
Art Gallery of Alberta exterior cool architecture
Art Gallery of Alberta – IQRemix
Art Gallery of Alberta interior cool architecture, Edmonton
IQRemix
Royal Alberta Museum exterior
Royal Alberta Museum – Doug Zwick
view of Edmonton skyline from across north saskatchewan river
North Saskatchewan River Valley – Kurayba
North Saskatchewan River Valley at evening with Edmonton skyline
WherezJeff
ice castles exhibition in Edmonton
Ice Castles – Jason Woodhead
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Alberta Legislature Building with lit Christmas Tree and decorations in front at evening, Edmonton
Alberta Legislature Building – WherezJeff
view of downtown Edmonton from under a bridge across the north saskatchewan river at night
WherezJeff
North Saskatchewan River at evening with sun reflecting on the water
North Saskatchewan River – Richard Bukowski
University of Alberta Botanic Garden from bench view across a pond
University of Alberta Botanic Garden – Janusz Sliwinski
central city of Edmonton at sundown with bridge
Alex Pugliese
blue lights reflecting on the inside of a bridge passageway in Edmonton, Canada
Alex Pugliese
snow-covered walkway view from a bridge in the morning in Edmonton
Corey Tran
man on the steps in downtown edmonton, alberta at night with lights and christmas decor
Redd

Profile & Cool Places in Alberta (Rural) | Earth’sFace 🇨🇦

ALBERTA

/al-BER-duh/ * /al-BER-tuh/

provincial Flag of Alberta
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satellite map image of Alberta
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Canadian Provinces and Territories, map of Alberta province highlighted in red
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Name origin

for Princess Louise Caroline Alberta, a daughter of British Queen Victoria

Population

<4,371,000

Main languages

Predominantly English (c. 92%)

Capital

*Edmonton

Biggest City

Calgary

Location

Western Canada

Borders the United States to the south

Biogeography

Nearctic Realm

Part of Canada’s boreal forests and taiga, prairies, western mountains and forests (especially the Rockies), aspen parklands, and some dry steppe and highlands (especially around the badlands). Has part of large Lake Athabasca.


Places in Alberta Gallery

rock formation on a morning in the plains of Alberta
Bobbijogrunewald
canola fields in Alberta, Canada
Darren Kirby
Prince of Wales Hotel, Waterton Lakes
Prince of Wales Hotel, Waterton Lakes – Diana Robinson
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mountain and lake setting in Waterton Lakes region, Alberta
Jan Mosimann
hoodoos in the badlands of Drumheller, Canada
Hoodoos in Drumheller – Robert Montgomery
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dinosaur skeleton at the Royal Tyrell Museum, place in Alberta
Royal Tyrell Museum – Wilson Hui
Kakwa Falls in the Kakwa Wildlands provincial park, Alberta
Kakwa Falls – Ken Sawich
Maligne Canyon from inside looking up, Canada
Maligne Canyon – Keith Roper
Maligne Canyon during winter with frozen cascades, place in Alberta
Si Longworth Photography
Valley of the Ten Peaks, Jasper National Park
Valley of the Ten Peaks – Matt Thomason
a forested valley covered in snow in Jasper National Park, Alberta
WherezJeff
mountain peak covered in forest, Canadian Rockies
WherezJeff
a lake surrounded by forest and mountains in Alberta
Jasper National Park – Bernd Thaller
green trees near lake under blue sky during daytime, setting in Alberta, Canada
sterlinglanier Lanier
serene lake and mountain backdrop in Banff National Park
Mahesh Gupta
waterfall in Johnston Canyon, Banff, Alberta
Johnston Canyon – Janani Ramanath
frozen falls in a snowy setting of the Canadian Rockies
John Bakator
large cave and rock formation in winter Alberta, Johnston Canyon
David Kovalenko
two jack lake and mountain backdrop in the evening in Banff National Park
Two Jack Lake – Geoff Pinkney
Minnewanka lake and snowy mountains in Alberta, Canada
Minnewanka Lake – Natalie Toombs
Bow Lake in Banff, western Canada
Bow Lake – Bernd Thaller
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Peyto Lake and forested mountains in sunny setting of Alberta
Peyto Lake – Pascal Bernardon
Moraine Lake in Banff National Park, Canadian Rockies
Moraine Lake – Jacky Huang
bridge over a curving river and plains setting in Lethbridge, city in Alberta
town of Lethbridge – Ryan Reynolds
historical mural art in the city of Medicine Hat, western Canada
city of Medicine Hat – Kevin Dooley
large teepee structure in Medicine Hat, Alberta
Janusz Sobolewski
falls and canyon in Willmore Wilderness Park
Willmore Wilderness Park – Richard Bukowski
columbia icefield and glaciers in western Alberta province
Columbia Icefield – Gary Campbell-Hall
cascading waterfalls along the icefields parkway in Alberta
Delaney Boyd
road on the icefields parkway leading to a massive snowy mountain in the distance, Canada
Icefields Parkway – Floris Siegers
mountains and blue skies in Peter Lougheed Provincial Park
Peter Lougheed Provincial Park – JD Hascup
lake and mountains under a blue and purple evening sky in Kananaskis Country, place in Alberta
Kananaskis Country – JD Hascup
mountains and forest landscap in kananaskis country, a region of the Canadian rockies
Gaylon Yancy
highway under towering white mountain landscape near Canmore, Alberta
Canmore – Thiago Terleski
a wood bison walking in the snow near elk island, Alberta
Justin Hu
elk island seen from the shores at sundown, place in western Canada
Elk Island – Ezra Jeffrey-Comeau

**A Special Thanks: this post was made possible by the amazing and generous Creative Commons and Free Stock photographers out there. Thank you for making your work and the amazing places you capture accessible to the rest of the world!

Bio-Realms – A Better Way Than Continents to ‘Divide’ the World?

Continents are confusing …

a world map with question marks over it, showing the confusion that comes with the current system of continents
original by Brett Zeck

There’s an ongoing question that pokes at the side of so many people in this world. Should I take my shower before or after work? Woah, not that! You dirty minds. While either way you choose has its benefits, I was thinking about the continents. Most people agree that there are seven continents … no wait, there are definitely five … maybe three real ones and a handful of small ones? 

You see the issue; it’s hard to define what a continent really is. Is it a large landmass completely separate from all others like a social-distancing master? Or, is a continent just any big chunk of land that generally fits together, separated only by a thin isthmus or huge range of mountains, for example? I get the feeling this was so much easier back in the Pangaea days.

Read more:

I’m not here to prove what is a continent and what isn’t. Instead of trying to define them, we can look at what could be a much better way of “dividing” our world — if we must divide it at all. This potentially better system is by way of the bio-realm. But first, why is the continent system so jacked up in the first place?

Why is the continent system jacked up?

For one, it’s hard to tell what a continent is and how it should be divided. The names of continents we have now were mostly named by outsiders, with proposed etymologies coming mostly from European or Middle Eastern origins. Keep in mind the names of some of these places are so archaic that they can get seriously hard to trace.

Some factors that make the continents confusing can be:

  1. There’s such a diversity of cultures and demographics on any given continent that an umbrella term can’t capture them all (“African” for Tunisia and the Congo, “Asian” for India and Japan)
  2. Many countries fall into a weird buffer zone (Is Egypt African or Asian? Is Armenia Asian or European? What is the Caribbean? The Middle East? Oceania?)
  3. Many countries can’t agree on what the real continents are anyway (North and South America, or just America? Is it Eurasia, or maybe Afro-Eurasia? Australia, Oceania, or Australasia? Good-ness!)

That is pretty jacked up. So, what are the bio-realms? Why might they be better than continents?

Into a new “realm”

Biogeographic realms, in this circumstance, are a way to look at the world by dividing it among major ecological and geographical areas. This means places that share a somewhat continuous ecology (plant and animal life, in most cases, climate and habitat types too). Plus, don’t you just love the word “realms?” It sounds like we’re traveling into some kind of fantasy dimension. 


Okay, so the bio-realms are:

  • Nearctic Realm (North America excluding the tropics)
  • Neotropical Realm (all of the Americas in or south of the tropics, i.e. Central & South America + the Caribbean)
  • Palearctic Realm (all of Europe and Asia north of the tropics, including Northern Africa)
  • Afrotropical Realm (all of Africa in or south of the tropics, including the tropics of Arabia and the Arabian Sea coast west of Pakistan)
  • Indo-Malayan Realm (all of Asia in or south of the tropics, going east from Pakistan)
  • Australasian Realm (Australia, New Zealand, and Melanesia, including Papua and Maluku Islands)
  • Oceanian Realm (Micronesia and Polynesia, generally the Asia-Pacific region)
  • Antarctic Realm (Antarctica and the surrounding seas)

*I like to separate between West and East Palearctic since the region is so huge, but that’s personal preference, not scientific or anything

One cool thing about this system of looking at the world is that it is more fluid. For example, Mauritius and Madagascar can be considered Afrotropical in terms of geography but Indo-Malayan in terms of culture and history. On a broader note, this grouping can help people get a truer sense of what the world really looks like. The bio-realms are intended to be solely geographical, but without really trying, they pretty well represent most of the historic and cultural interactions that people have had over the millennia too. 

For instance, Morocco had a lot more interaction and influence in nearby Spain than it did in faraway Uganda. Pretty much all of Latin America — and the Caribbean with which it shares many similarities — are in or south of the tropics anyway. South and Southeast Asia have been interacting with and have a lot more in common with each other than they do with the rest of Asia. North African countries have a lot more shared history and identity with Europe and the Middle East than they do with Sub-Saharan Africa in general. 

Read more:

Of course, the world is globalizing and interconnectivity between cultures is constantly on the rise. Even still, the divisions of bio-realms make a lot more sense when grouping places together based on shared geography, climate, and cultures. 

Like with the continents, there are definitely problematic zones that aren’t so easy to categorize. Places like Melanesia, the Sahara, and the Himalayas are still tricky because the cultural and geographic lines aren’t so clear-cut from one side to the other. Several countries like Mexico, China, and Indonesia would fall into two realms, while countries like Pakistan fall into three. That could get a little weird. Even with these issues, I appreciate that the bio-realms at least show how there are great levels of diversity within those countries, amplifying their special roles as doorways between realms. (See, isn’t this fun?!)

Going back to the purpose of this article, the bio-realm system wouldn’t be a way to divide people but to more accurately view the world the way it really is. They are not supposed to be a sharp clear line of separation, but rather a wide fuzzy line that combines similar areas into large general categories. The system is much more accurate at representing the world’s actual geography, somewhat better at grouping the world’s people, but still flawed like any other manmade labeling system.


What do you think about the bio-realms? Did you understand this way of dividing the world? Could it be valuable to utilize this system and the continental system together? Or would you rather stick with the good old continents? 

Thank you for reading, and take good care of each other, whatever realm you reside in! 

Contact or collaborate: tietewaller@gmail.com, or Give me a shout!

What makes Saskatchewan unique? – 10 Cool Features 🇨🇦

double rainbows over Lake Diefenbaker, rural Saskatchewan
Lake Diefenbaker – Olivia Kulbida

Heading out to the middle of the prairie, this is Saskatchewan’s time. A Canadian province known for flat open terrain and farming, this place definitely has a lot more specialties than milk and bread. Read a quick profile and then enjoy about 10 cool things that make Saskatchewan a unique place.

SASKATCHEWAN: Quick Profile

Canadian Provinces and Territories map, saskatchewan highlighted in red
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road map of Saskatchewan
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Flag of Saskatchewan
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Cities: Regina is the capital; Saskatoon is the biggest city

Location: the middle of the three Prairie provinces in the interior of central Canada, far from any oceans; it borders the U.S. to the south

Read more: about Canada; about Manitoba

Climate: mostly humid continental (humid hot summers and snowy cold winters) with Subarctic climate in the north and some semi-arid steppe (dry plains) features in the southwest; the weather usually comes in extremes with particularly warm summers and intensely cold winters throughout; weather can be very windy with tornadoes and storms being fairly common, although Saskatchewan gets more sunlight than any other province

Environment: mostly prairies and plains in the south with some highlands; mostly boreal forests and taiga to the north with over 100 thousand lakes, Lake Athabasca is the largest; some tundra in the far north and some large areas of sand dunes

Name: it was once a part of Britain’s North West Territories; named after the Saskatchewan River, from the Cree language meaning “swift flowing river”

1. Because of Grasslands National Park

landscape of Cypress Hills, Saskatchewan
Cypress Hills – Erik Lizee / Eriklizee

What is it?:

Grasslands is a national park in southern Saskatchewan near the U.S. border. It preserves lots of prairies and rolling Great Plains landscapes, as well as the range critters.

Places and features:

Wildlife and hiking; Cypress Hills Interprovincial Park, with some highlands and collections of dinosaur fossils

2. Because of Moose Jaw

mac the moose statue in Moose Jaw, Canada
Mac the Moose – Lisa

What is that?:

While not a literal Moose Jaw, this place is a small city in rural Saskatchewan. Despite its size, it has a nicely infused natural landscape and some unique experiences throughout.

Places and features:

Tunnels of Moose Jaw, tunnel tours that explore parts of the city’s underground past such as prohibition and Chinese immigration; Wakamow Valley, urban park; the Western Development Museum, exploring how the West was won; Mac the Moose, a giant moose statue; Temple Gardens Hotel & Spa, a luxurious spa with a big geothermal pool

Discover: Tunnels of Moose Jaw tours; Temple Gardens

3. Because of Regina

prince edward building in Regina, Canada
Prince Edward Building – Grahampurse

What is it?:

Well, Regina (Reh-jai-na) is the capital and one of the main cultural hubs in the whole province. The city hosts several events and festivals along with some beautiful urban scenery. It may not be the most populous city in Saskatchewan, but it doesn’t miss by much

wascana lake and park in the wascana centre, near central city Regina
Wascana Lake – Tintaggon

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Places and features:

Saskatchewan Legislative Building; RCMP Heritage Centre, dedicated to the Royal Canadian Mounted Police with festivals and service ceremonies; the Government House; MacKenzie Art Gallery; Royal Saskatchewan Museum; Saskatchewan Science Centre; Wascana Centre, a huge urban lake with an even bigger park surrounding the city center and provincial buildings; Hotel Saskatchewan, offers historic interactions with a step back into the prohibition era; Victoria Park

4. Because of Saskatoon

Bessborough Hotel & South Saskatchewan River in Saskatoon
Bessborough Hotel & South Saskatchewan River – Kyla Duhamel

What is it?:

You know! Saskatoon is the biggest city, or most populous I should say, in the province. Similar to Regina, it offers lots of cultural and culinary attractions mixed in with a beautiful natural landscape.

Places and features:

Forestry Farm Park & Zoo; Remai Modern, a cooly-designed modern art gallery; Western Development Museum, the largest of these in Saskatchewan; Ukrainian Museum of Canada, documenting Ukrainian heritage in the nation and one of the biggest ethnic minorities of Canada; South Saskatchewan River, a scenic river that runs through town, it shelters riverside green spaces like Rotary Park and Kiwanis Memorial Park; the Delta Bessborough Hotel

5. Because of the Trans-Canada Highway

yellow flowers cultivating in the qu'appelle valley, southeast Saskatchewan
Qu’Appelle Valley – Kjfmartin

What is it?:

This is basically what it sounds like. Within Saskatchewan, the Trans-Canada Highway takes drivers across pretty sweeping landscapes and through some interesting towns and provincial parks.

Places and features:

Qu’Appelle Valley, a stunning valley area with lakes and places like Echo Valley Provincial Park and Fort Qu’Appelle; Moose Mountain Provincial Park, several other towns and parks along the way

6. Because of its Unique Lakes

jackfish lake pier, Saskatchewan
Jackfish Lake – Kyla Duhamel

What are they?:

Saskatchewan, like much of Canada, is known for its many, many lakes. With so many of them, this province still has some that stand out from the rest.

Places and features:

Little Manitou Lake, a lake with a high salt concentration that allows for floating, it also hosts a resort and spa nearby; Lake Diefenbaker, an artificial lake or reservoir with interesting rock formations, cliffs, and a long shoreline; Jackfish Lake, with nearby Cochin Lighthouse (in the middle of the prairies!)

7. Because of Historic Towns & Forts

tipis in Wanuskewin Heritage Park near Saskatoon
Wanuskewin Heritage Park – Travis Wiens

What are these?:

Historic towns and sites like forts are important places where the past can be preserved. Saskatchewan has a lot of these places that share its extensive history.

Places and features:

Maple Creek, home to a frontier-themed B&B called Ghostown Blues and Fort Walsh, a historic mounted police fort; Wanuskewin Heritage Park, a cultural historic center near Saskatoon documenting over 6,000 years of First Nations heritage; Batoche, a stronghold town during the Métis rebellion, now a museum; Fort Carlton, a Hudson’s Bay fur trade post; the Battlefords, Battleford and North Battleford were important towns for the mounted police during territory days, home to Fort Battleford and, you guessed it, another Western Development Museum

8. Because of Sand Dunes

athabasca sand dunes near lake athabasca, canada
Athabasca Sand Dunes – Snappy Goat

What are those?:

Outsiders might not know that Saskatchewan is home to the largest sand dunes in the world that far north. Some are in the southern region, but the biggest dunes are a drive up.

Places and features:

Great Sand Hills, Canada’s second-largest; Athabasca Sand Dunes Provincial Park, Canada’s largest dunes along the shores of mighty Lake Athabasca

9. Because of its Northern Wilderness

Sunset on the Waskesiu Lake in Prince Albert National Park Saskatchewan, Canada
Waskesiu Lake, Prince Albert National Park – Viktor Birkus

What is that?:

To the north of this province is a vast area of wilderness. This ranges from dense boreal forests to scattered taiga, from the many lakes to tundra and even sand dunes, as we just saw before.

Places and features:

Clearwater River Provincial Park, with waterfalls, rivers, and rapids; Prince Albert National Park, with controversial conservationist Grey Owl’s Beaver Lodge; Reindeer Lake; Lake Athabasca; Hunt Falls, powerful waterfalls up north

10. Because of its Culture

Saskatchewan is a curious one of the Prairie provinces. It’s smack dab in the middle of them, with its plains and open spaces giving it the feel of a giant field or farm. Sure, the plains played a huge role in the settlement of the region from First Nations down to Eastern European farmers, though English and Anglo-Canadian ID is dominant. And it’s notable how important the mounted police culture has been in this place.

The indigenous presence is comparatively big in Saskatchewan’s largest cities. Their cultures are preserved in elaborate galleries, historic sites, and even universities dedicated to them. Beyond that, these cultural centers help to preserve so well the building blocks of the province’s society. They make it clear where the modern place has come from.

Spikes in temperature and the harsh climate have molded its diverse residents into toughness and resistance. Previously a province that suffered hard economical times, Saskatchewan has been turning business around and making things more interesting for all. Whether passing through on the open highway or stopping to slide on some dunes, this grain basket of Canada has a lot of flavor for any taste!

**Thank you all for coming! I hope you enjoyed learning more about Saskatchewan. Tell us what you like about this place, and shout out if you’re from SK. Feel free to look at other posts on Cult-Surf or related posts in the Earth’s Face section. Take care and be awesome! Peace.

Canada on the Map: Straight Facts

A vertical triband design (red, white, red) with a red maple leaf in the center.
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We’re starting off a new section here in CultSurf just to give you all a bit of variety. We’ve been discussing culture, society, music, and movies from around the globe (mostly the USA, sorry, I’m a little biased). Some of you might be interested in learning more about the in-depth characteristics of English-speaking countries. We won’t focus too much on culture here, but more on geography and a few other things. I was really inspired by Geography Now on YouTube and I enjoy their channel, so I’ll share their video with the corresponding countries if they’ve made it already. They make videos about all the world’s countries from A-Z, so it might take a while for them to reach Zimbabwe, for example.

What does an American know about Canada?

So obviously I won’t be writing about myself or Americans that know a lot about Canada. I’m speaking about what I knew about the country before I started learning geography, and what my fellow citizens may or may not know already.

Happy Canadian here – Photo by Pixabay on Pexels.com
  • We know about some cities like Toronto and Vancouver, probably Montréal. Some of us like the name Newfoundland and joke at how hard it can be to pronounce.
  • We know it’s freezing up there. We’ve seen those pictures of polar bears walking through town.
  • Moose, caribou, Northern Lights, and the Arctic is somewhere up there.
  • We have to cross it to get to Alaska.
  • Funny accents, eh? And syrup, lots of bacon and syrup.

The Provinces & Cities (and Territories)

As we see on our lovely map, Canada has 10 subdivisions called provinces, plus another 3 called territories.

A map of Canada showing its 10 provinces and 3 territories
The easiest map I could find on Wikipedia

Central Canada has the two biggest provinces, Ontario and Quebec. This is also where you find the two biggest cities, Toronto and Montréal. It’s known as central Canada even though it’s not directly in the middle of the country. That’s because historically these were the main places to be settled by the British and French as the colony known as Canada. Later they spread out and acquired more land. These places have the most people and are the biggest economic and cultural influencers in the country. They’re also massive, reaching from the Great Lakes all the way up to the northern tundra!

The smallest provinces are in the general Atlantic Maritimes region, which are Newfoundland and Labrador, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick. These areas were among the last to really join Canada as a united country. They had lots of immigration from Scotland and Ireland, and have a much stronger sea culture than the rest of the country. They’re sort of like the New England of Canada. They were also the main places that welcomed British Loyalist soldiers during and after the American War for Independence.

Then there’s out West. This area can be thought of generally as the Great Plains and mountains of Canada. Here we have Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, and British Columbia, though B.C. can also be thought of as the West Coast province. These were lands acquired after Central Canada was already set up, and are known for big open spaces, farming and agriculture, and lots of mountain stuff. There is major business and cultural influence coming from this part of Canada too, especially since Calgary and Vancouver are major global centers.

And then there were the Territories; Northwest Territories, the Yukon, and Nunavut. These, generally speaking, are three massive landmasses (haha) way up in the tundra and arctic of North America. They are very, very, very scarcely populated and mostly got attention during the gold rush years, especially in Yukon. Otherwise there’s lots of ice and natural beauty, but I’m pretty sure they’re the least known region of the country overall.

Notre-Dame Basilica, Montreal – By Diego Delso

A little about the cities, you have Toronto, Ontario, the biggest in the country, that is known as one of the most, if not the most, ethnically diverse cities in the world. I think about half the city is non-white, if not more, and even the white population is pretty diverse there. The capital, Ottawa, is in Ontario as well. A lot of the world-famous artists from Canada come from this lower area of Ontario, like Justin Bieber, Drake, The Weekend, and so on. Niagara Falls is the home of those same falls, and Mississauga has some cool spacey architecture.

Montréal is the 2nd biggest mostly French-speaking city in the world and is also extremely diverse, as is the rest of Canada. Québec is a very traditional European-looking city, especially in the old town. Halifax, Nova Scotia and St. John’s, Newfoundland are important port cities and historic centers. Edmonton is the capital of Alberta and the biggest city in the world for how far north it is. Calgary is also a very big city and cultural center. Some other major cities worth your research are Victoria, Saskatoon, Regina, Winnipeg, and St. John.

What are They?

So we know Canada has provinces, not states. The provinces actually are quite similar to states in how they are run, and many freedoms that the United States are allowed, so too are the Canadian provinces. Provinces, in general, tend to come from more Empirical powers (like the United Kingdom was) and so this name stems from historical association. The United States were also at once independent states that united, while Canada’s provinces have mostly been under the rule of Britain except for a few exceptions.

Canada stayed loyal and sympathetic to Britain for much longer than the U.S. which could explain many things about their cultural identity. Otherwise, the territories are similar to territories of any country. Even though they are huge, they have tiny populations. This makes it so that their representation is a little less relevant on the national scale, and so they do in fact have less representation.

Canada the year the British colonies united – By Unknown author

And the Commonwealth?

Like with province, there’s no universal definition of what a commonwealth really is. Puerto Rico and Guam, for example, are commonwealths of the U.S. Still, the British Commonwealth states have a lot more autonomy and are all considered their own sovereign states with some more or less cordial ties to Britain. The Monarch really only has a say in cases of a complete national or political emergency really, but otherwise Canadians are Canadians and not Brits. Although as I said before, they do and did keep stronger ties with Britain (and France, for that matter) over the years than the U.S. did.

Canada’s English-Speaking. What About Québec?

Good question. Canada traditionally had two main European colonizers: the English/British and the French. You’ll actually see this in a lot of English-speaking countries, where France took the colony from Britain or Britain took it from France and so there is a lot of mixed historical identity. Think of Louisiana, St. Lucia, or Cameroon. Geographically, Canada’s French-speaking population stuck mostly to one general area, giving this group a more distinct identity. People from Québec have long had mixed feelings about Canada, some wanting to separate into their own independent place while others just want more autonomy (not to mention those who don’t really care either way). Speaking English, French, or Punjabi, they’re all Canadians in the end.

Generally, there is pride in the history of French Canada, the part of Canada where the country got its name from. English and French are both official languages in the nation, but French is a lot stronger in Québec province, along with a few pockets of places in the neighboring provinces. You also get St. Pierre and Miquelon, which is an overseas territory of France (something like French Guiana, although it’s a full-on department of France) that borders Newfoundland and is fully French.

Talk More About Diversity

Canada is really one of the most diverse countries there is, and this is due to its historic reputation as an open arm for immigrants. The Asian (East and South) population and impact on Canadian culture is huge. German and Scandinavian identity is big in some regions, not to mention the largest communities of Icelandic and Ukrainian descendants outside those countries live in Canada. The country has also welcomed many from other Commonwealth states and former colonies, such as Caribbeans and Guyanese, Africans, Indians, and Pakistanis. The most influential though, hands down, have been the British and French.

Canada’s a diverse place – Photo by Gemma Chua-Tran on Unsplash

Most Canadians live within a few hundred miles from the U.S. border which also impacts the culture. Northern Americans and most Canadians have a fluid cultural and societal mixture that influences one and the other. This is especially true of migration, business, and the arts. Lots of Canadians have American ancestry and vice-versa. And of course, the first occupants of the continent have had a huge impact on the country. In Canada, they are generally referred to as First Nations, and they themselves are as diverse and influential as the later foreigners that would create modern Canada. They generally are considered two main groups, the traditional people most of us think of as Native or indigenous Americans, and the Inuits, a set of people with a bit different ancestry.

Let’s End with Some Actual Geography!

Canada has a land area of over 3.5 million square miles, making it the second biggest country in the world after Russia. It has a population of about 38 million, less than countries like South Korea, Spain, and Uganda, which are way smaller. I mean, compare them on a map. The Maritimes are mostly chilly and rainy with oceanic climates and many pretty islands. The northern continuation of the Appalachian Mountain system goes up here, and way up North in Labrador to Nunavut you get the Arctic Cordillera range of tall, jagged, arctic mountains.

Thefalls.jpg
Kakabeka Falls in Ontario – By Hgsyro

The south of Central Canada borders the U.S. by way of the super-important St. Lawrence River system, as well as the Great Lakes. This area is very hospitable and is where the biggest urban areas are concentrated. You also get big waterfalls and some dense forests on up to Hudson Bay which supports a kind of wet plain. It usually freezes over and so this is a major crossing ground for Arctic animals like polar bears. The middle of the country has an outstanding number of lakes, and the north is especially stocked with some of the biggest forests and highest amount of lakes on planet Earth.

Going back down, you get a general plains and prairies region that goes on till you hit some mountains. These are essentially the Canadian extension of the Rockies, and they go up all the way to the Yukon and even into Alaska. You have a fertile yet somewhat dry valley between those and the coastal mountains and rainy forests which also extend into Alaska. Above all that stuff is basically a large stretch of lakes, cold plains, forests, and taiga (basically a tundra with some scattered trees). Tundra covers most of that very northern part of the country where it steadily transitions into polar landscapes. This is especially true of the massive islands of Nunavut which reach all the way up to the North Pole (and Santa! Oh wait, he’s Scandinavian)

That’s all, you curious geography lovers! I hope you enjoyed mapping out this huge and special country called Canada. As promised, here is the Geography Now video. Please comment if you like Canada. If you are from there (howdy neighbor) comment if you want to teach us more about your fabulous home! Thanks, and we’ll be talking soon.

If you liked this, you might also like to read about the U.S. geography with Aren’t all the U.S. states and cities basically the same? – Regional diversity in the USA. Tell me what you think, and enjoy 😉

Other fun facts about Canada: https://www.canadianaffair.com/blog/how-big-is-canada/