Places in Yukon – Gallery Images, Videos, & Profile | Earth’s Face 🇨🇦

territorial Flag of Yukon, Canada
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YUKON

English: /YOO-kahn/

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French: /yu-KON/

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Canadian Provinces and Territories, the Yukon highlighted in red
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satellite map image of the Yukon territory
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Name Origin

after the Yukon River, possibly from the Gwich’in language for “white water river” or “great river

Population

~ 42,600

Main Languages

Predominantly English (~ 83%). The next most spoken language is French, also an official language in the territory (~ 4%). Both languages are spoken in local Canadian varieties.

Capital & Largest City

Whitehorse

Location

Northwestern Canada, a federal territory in the general Arctic and Pacific Mountains regions. Has some Arctic Ocean coastline to the north and borders the United States (Alaska) to the west.

Biogeography

Nearctic Realm

Part of Canada’s Pacific Cordillera mountains, Taiga Cordillera mountains, and taiga plains, with some Arctic tundra. Home to Mount Logan, Canada’s tallest mountain (2nd tallest in North America).


Gallery Images & Videos: Places in Yukon

totem poles made of hubcaps in Yukon, Canada
JLS Photography – Alaska
emerald lake with mountain backdrop, popular place in Yukon
Emerald Lake – JAYRNIV
dunes at the Carcross Desert, southern Yukon, Canada
Carcross Desert – teamscuby
monument of an indigenous person canoeing at the Yukon Beringia Interpretive Centre in Whitehorse
Yukon Beringia Interpretive Centre – Travis
the SS Klondike in the snow in Whitehorse, Canada
SS Klondike – Gareth Sloan
northern lights (aurora borealis) in Whitehorse, famous sight in Yukon territory
Whitehorse – Studiolit
a bend at Miles Canyon, outside of Whitehorse
Miles Canyon – Timothy Neesam
a bend at Miles Canyon, a place in Yukon
Diego Delso
high snowy mountain peaks with sun rays reflecting, part of Yukon
Richard Droker
mountains, forests and a winding river in Kluane National Park and Reserve, place in Yukon
Kluane National Park and Reserve – Kalen Emsley
a wood stump on the stony shores of a river ahead of mountains in Kluane National Park and Reserve, the Yukon
WherezJeff
downtown hotel in Dawson City on a snowy day, northwestern Canada
Dawson City – Arthur T. LaBar
person walking on the road on the scenic Dempster Highway, Yukon
Dempster Highway – Joseph
mountain crest in the fields of Ivvavik National Park, a place in Yukon
Ivvavik National Park – Daniel Case
rugged beds of a river in the landscapes of Ivvavik National Park, in the Yukon
Daniel Case
flooded wetlands of Vuntut National Park, a place in Yukon
Vuntut National Park – Крис Кирзик
a section of a river in snowy frozen landscape at dawn in Yukon
Keith Williams
a section of the Yukon River in a snowy landscape with the sun barely over the horizon
Yukon River – Keith Williams
a boat/ canoe on a wide section of the Yukon River, Canada
Camera Eye Photography
white clouded mountains towering over a dark forest in the Yukon, near the Alaska Highway
Alaska Highway – Goran Vlacic
a section of the Alaska Highway with forests and snowy mountain backdrops in the Yukon
JLS Photography – Alaska
a dog sled team running in the snowy landscapes of the Yukon, Canada
Arthur T. LaBar
a unique black bear in the flowery fields of Yukon Wildlife Preserve, place in Canada
Yukon Wildlife Preserve – Keith Williams
a sweeping valley landscape in the Tombstone Territorial Park, a place in Yukon
Tombstone Territorial Park – Bo Mertz
bright purple/pink flowers on the shores of the Alsek River with mountains behind, the Yukon
Alsek River – zug zwang
moose antlers left ahead of the curving Alsek River in Yukon
zug zwang
a bald eagle perched near the Tatshenshini River in Yukon, Canada
Tatshenshini River – Matt Zimmerman
snowy mountains seen from the inside of a small passenger plane, flying over the Yukon
Jack Church

Places in the Northwest Territories | Gallery, Videos, & Profile 🇨🇦

Flag of Northwest Territories, Canada
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NORTHWEST TERRITORIES

les Territoires du Nord-Ouest

Canadian Provinces and Territories
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Name Origin

when Rupert’s Land and the North-Western Territory were joined, they became the North-West Territories, describes their geographic location in Canada

Population

~ 45,000

Main Languages

Predominantly English (~ 78%). Dogrib or Tłı̨chǫ is the most prevalent indigenous language (~ 4%). Other official languages are: Chipewyan, Cree, French, Gwich’in, Inuinnaqtun, Inuktitut, Inuvialuktun, North Slavey, and South Slavey. Mostly spoken by small portions of the population.

Capital & Largest City

Yellowknife

Location

Northwestern Canada, a federal territory in the general Arctic region. Mostly located on the mainland with some territory on large islands in the Arctic Archipelago. Has coastline on the Arctic Ocean.

Biogeography

Nearctic Realm

Parts of Canada’s taiga (mostly plains and shield forests), Taiga Cordillera mountains, and Arctic tundra. Major lakes include Great Slave Lake (deepest in North America) and Great Bear Lake (largest lake fully within Canada).


Gallery Images & Videos: Places in the Northwest Territories

northern lights (aurora borealis) in the snowy forests near Yellowknife, Canada
Yellowknife – kwan fung
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Great Slave Lake shores and blue skies in Yellowknife, Northwest Territories
Jack L
Virginia Falls, Nahanni National Park Reserve, place in the Northwest Territories, Canada
Virginia Falls, Nahanni National Park Reserve – Mike Beauregard
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exterior Our Lady of Victory Catholic Church, Inuvik, on a snowy day
Our Lady of Victory Catholic Church, Inuvik – dawn
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Nionep'ene Lake in Naats'ihch'oh National Park, place in Northwest Territories, Canada
Nááts’įhch’oh National Park – Paul Gierszewski
Hornaday River and canyon in Tuktut Nogait National Park, place in the Northwest Territories
Tuktut Nogait National Park – Paul Gierszewski
jagged ice patterns on the frozen surface of Great Slave Lake, Northern Canada
Great Slave Lake – Phillip Grondin
a sunset / sunrise over the frozen expanse of Great Slave Lake, place in the Northwest Territories
buck82
landscape of scattered forest and plains in the taiga of Northwest Territories, Canada, Wood Buffalo National Park
Wood Buffalo National Park – Dru!
autumn colors and forests along the banks of a river in Northwest Territories, Canada, Wood Buffalo National Park
Scott Lough
taiga plains of the Northwest Territories, with flooded sections and lakes, near the Dempster Highway
Tania Liu
falls colors of grasses and lichens on the rolling hills of Northwestern Canada near the Dempster Highway
near the Dempster Highway – Tania Liu
bison walking near the water and a forest in Fort Providence, town in the Northwest Territories
Scott Lough
town of Fort Providence covered in snow with a church on the side, place in Northwestern Territories, Canada
Fort Providence – Leslie Philipp
tepees on the snow-covered shores of Great Bear Lake, northwestern Canada
Great Bear Lake – Sahtu Wildlife
rushing waterfall at Twin Gorges Territorial Park, Hay River, a place in the Northwest Territories
Twin Gorges Territorial Park, Hay River – Mike Tidd
an iceberg with ship remains ahead of it in the Northwest Passage of Arctic Canada
Northwest Passage – Roderick Eime
icebreaker ships sailing through the icy waters of the Northwest Passage, a section of the Northwest Territories, Canada
Coast Guard News
a colorful purple and pink sunset over the Mackenzie River near Fort Simpson in the Northwest Territories
Mackenzie River – Fort Simpson Chamber of C
Church of Our Lady of Good Hope - interior, a place in Fort Good Hope, Northwest Territories of Canada
Church of Our Lady of Good Hope, Fort Good Hope – mattcatpurple

Places in Newfoundland and Labrador – Profile & Gallery 🇨🇦

A quick profile, images, and recommended videos to discover Newfoundland & Labrador


Flag of Newfoundland and Labrador

NEWFOUNDLAND and LABRADOR

/NEW-fen-land-AND-LA-bruh-dor/ * /NOO-fin-lend-AND-LA-bri-dor/

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Canadian Provinces and Territories map, Newfoundland and Labrador highlighted in red
satellite map of Newfoundland and Labrador province

Name origin

from earlier name Terra Nova, “new land” in Portuguese and Latin, later adapted into English as Newfoundland

for Portuguese sailor, João Fernandes Lavrador

Population

<520,000

Main Languages

Predominantly English (~ 97%). Local variety is known as Newfoundland English.

Capital & Largest City

Saint John’s

Location

Eastern Canada (easternmost province) and part of the Atlantic region. Mostly located on the island of Newfoundland and the mainland section called Labrador, with many smaller islands.

Biogeography

Nearctic Realm

Parts of Canada’s Eastern boreal shield forests (especially on Newfoundland), taiga forests (especially in Labrador), and Arctic Cordillera mountains. The Smallwood Reservoir system in Labrador is the largest body of water.


Gallery of Places in Newfoundland & Labrador

view of St. John's, capital of Newfoundland and Labrador, at night with lights reflecting on the sea
St. John’s – Erik Mclean
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basilica in the city of St. John's, Newfoundland
Russ Quinlan
colorful houses and buildings viewed from across the harbor in St. John's, Canada
Dheera Venkatraman
the harbor and colorful architecture on the hills of St. John's city, Newfoundland and Labrador
Asmaa Dee
panorama of Signal Hill with views of the ocean, St. John's, Newfoundland
Signal Hill – Zach Bonnell
view of Signal Hill from a hillside and near pine tree, Newfoundland
Seán Ó Domhnaill
view of icebergs and the sea from the coast of Twillingate, eastern Canada
Twillingate – Robert Ciavarro
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odd-shaped black home in the rocky fields of Fogo Island, Newfoundland
Fogo Island – Timothy Neesam
lone house at sundown surrounded by wet plains and tides, Fogo Island
Timothy Neesam
stilted inn on a sunny day with views of the fields and ocean on Fogo Island, eastern Newfoundland
Zach Bonnell
the red and brown stones and snowy mountains with a stream and waterfall, the tablelands in Newfoundland and Labrador
the Tablelands – mrbanjo1138
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Western Brook Pond, Gros Morne National Park, iconic place in Newfoundland
Gros Morne National Park – VisitGrosMorne
a sod-covered wooden chapel in Norstead near L'Anse aux Meadows
Norstead near L’Anse aux Meadows – Douglas Sprott
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lighthouse and rocky shores at Capr Bonavista, Newfoundland
Cape Bonavista – Paul Gorbould
dark clouds at sunset in the town of Bonavista, a place in Newfoundland and Labrador
town of Bonavista – Jamie McCaffrey
church in the town of Trinity, eastern Newfoundland, Canada
town of Trinity – Robert Ciavarro
rocky shores and crashing waves on the Bonavista Peninsula
Bonavista Peninsula – Gary Paakkonen
man hiking in the forests along the Bonavista Peninsula with rocky cliffs and formations in the ocean ahead, Newfoundland
Wallace Howe
Atlantic puffins on the grass in Witless Bay, place in Newfoundland
Witless Bay – Richard Droker
waterfall falling from the forest into the ocean over red cliffs, Witless Bay in Newfoundland and Labrador province
Jim Sorbie
grassy cliffs and bird sanctuary overlooking the ocean, Cape St. Mary's, Newfoundland
Cape St. Mary’s – mrbanjo1138
view from canon at Castle Hill overlooking the town of Placentia, place in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada
Castle Hill, town of Placentia – Vicky TH
a bridge over a grassy creek in Terra Nova National Park, Newfoundland
Terra Nova National Park – Product of Newfoundland
arched rock formation on the pebbled beaches of Arches Provincial Park, Newfoundland in Canada
Arches Provincial Park – Michael Leland
twisted tress and forests overlooking the green waters and beach of coastal Newfoundland
Zach Bonnell
lighthouse and buildings at Port-au-Choix, Newfoundland coast
Port au Choix – Rod Brazier
lighthouse and trail up the hill in Cape Spear, place in Newfoundland and Labrador
Cape Spear – jessica
whale tail and ocean ahead of the shores in Battle Harbour, Labrador
Battle Harbour – echo8
historic lighthouse on a cloudy day in Point Amour, place in Labrador, Canada
Point Amour – Kerron L
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the rushing tides of Churchill Falls, Newfoundland and Labrador province
Churchill Falls – Douglas Sprott
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towering mountains  and fjords viewed from above in Torngat Mountains National Park, place in northern Labrador, Canada
Torngat Mountains National Park – DJANDYW.COM AKA NOBO

Profile & Gallery of Places in Alberta (Calgary – Edmonton) | Earth’s Face

CALGARY

/KAL-ger-ee/ * /KAL-guh-ree/

listen

EDMONTON

/ED-muhn-TUHN/ * /ED-min-TIN/

listen

satellite map of the city of Calgary, Alberta
satellite map of the city of Edmonton, Canada

Name origin

Edmonton: originally Fort Edmonton, a fur trading post, named after Edmonton, England, the birthplace of a founding governor, Sir James Winter Lake

Calgary: named for the hamlet of Calgary, Scotland

Population

Edmonton: City <981,000 – Metro <1,321,000

Calgary: City <1,336,000 – Metro <1,392,000

Location

Edmonton: Central Alberta, aspen parklands region

Calgary: Southern Alberta, foothills/prairies region

Calgary is along the Bow River and the Elbow River. Edmonton is along the North Saskatchewan River.


Cities of Alberta Image Gallery: Calgary & Edmonton

a main square with colonial buildings and horse drawn carriage, Calgary's Heritage Park and village
Heritage Park, Calgary – Bernard Spragg
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the wonderland sculpture in downtown Calgary, Alberta
Wonderland sculpture – Davide Colonna
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a scene with skyscrapers and the wonderland sculpture on the streets of downtown Calgary, Canada
Nataliia Kvitovska
interior view of the Peace Bridge in Calgary
Peace Bridge, Denisse Leon
the Peace Bridge at evening over the Bow River leading to downtown Calgary
Robert Montgomery
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footbridge from Prince's Island Park with view of the Calgary skyline
Prince’s Island Park – Richard Carter
the Calgary Tower at night with lights, Alberta, Canada
Calgary Tower – asweseeit.ca CANADA
riders on horseback holding Canadian flags during the Calgary Stampede
Calgary Stampede – Leif Harboe
bronco riding at a rodeo during the Calgary Stampede
Sean Robertson
exterior of knox united church in downtown Calgary
Knox United Church – Bill Longstaff
ceiling of the chinese cultural centre in Calgary
Chinese Cultural Centre – Ricky Leong
a penguin swimming in water at the calgary zoo
Calgary Zoo – Bernard Spragg
black and white of studio bell centre, a place in calgary
Studio Bell – Michael Brager Photography
an autumn trail in fish creek provincial park, Canada's biggest urban park
Fish Creek Provincial Park – Bernard Spragg
fort calgary exterior in the snow
Fort Calgary – Bernard Spragg
the devonian gardens within the CORE shopping centre, Calgary, Alberta
Devonian Gardens – M Cheung
CORE Shopping Centre exterior and busy street in central Calgary
CORE Shopping Centre – Andres Alvarado
the Central Library in Calgary interior architecture
Central Library – Bilal Karim
view of Calgary skyline from the Bow River
Bow River – Bernard Spragg
stephen avenue in the evening with some light decorations, Calgary
Stephen Ave – Ayrcan
walking bridge over a wetland area in outer Calgary
Ahmed Zalabany
street art designs on a building in Calgary, CANAda
Toni Reed
interesting buildings and skyscrapers from street view at night in Calgary
Ryunosuke Kikuno
Hawrelak Park and Edmonton skyline
Hawrelak Park – Kurayba
neon sign museum at dusk in Edmonton, Alberta
Neon Sign Museum – WherezJeff
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pyramids of muttart conservatory in Edmonton, Canada
Muttart Conservatory – Mack Male
old streetcar and building in Fort Edmonton Park
Fort Edmonton Park – Richard Laperche
west edmonton mall interior with bridge and canal, major place in Alberta
West Edmonton Mall – GoToVan
Art Gallery of Alberta exterior cool architecture
Art Gallery of Alberta – IQRemix
Art Gallery of Alberta interior cool architecture, Edmonton
IQRemix
Royal Alberta Museum exterior
Royal Alberta Museum – Doug Zwick
view of Edmonton skyline from across north saskatchewan river
North Saskatchewan River Valley – Kurayba
North Saskatchewan River Valley at evening with Edmonton skyline
WherezJeff
ice castles exhibition in Edmonton
Ice Castles – Jason Woodhead
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Alberta Legislature Building with lit Christmas Tree and decorations in front at evening, Edmonton
Alberta Legislature Building – WherezJeff
view of downtown Edmonton from under a bridge across the north saskatchewan river at night
WherezJeff
North Saskatchewan River at evening with sun reflecting on the water
North Saskatchewan River – Richard Bukowski
University of Alberta Botanic Garden from bench view across a pond
University of Alberta Botanic Garden – Janusz Sliwinski
central city of Edmonton at sundown with bridge
Alex Pugliese
blue lights reflecting on the inside of a bridge passageway in Edmonton, Canada
Alex Pugliese
snow-covered walkway view from a bridge in the morning in Edmonton
Corey Tran
man on the steps in downtown edmonton, alberta at night with lights and christmas decor
Redd

About Ireland 🇮🇪 Special in the English World

Ireland stands out in the English-speaking world

That’s right! Talking about the green island — well, green, white and orange, if we want to get technical. Ireland is one of the most recognizable and influential English-speaking countries out there. Here we’ll explore some of the reasons behind that bold statement. We’ll also take a quick look at the geography, culture, and other aspects of this modern Celtic nation. Let’s do it!

Read more: the Actual English World; Geography

Profile & Stuff — Geography of Ireland

One thing that can get confusing about Ireland is … well, what it is. There’s the island (and smaller isles) of Ireland, yes, which holds two different countries on it. One — the one we’re talking about — is the Republic of Ireland, or Poblacht na hÉireann if you want to get fancy (we’ll just call it Ireland for simplicity’s sake). The other is the United Kingdom, which lays claim on the island by way of Northern Ireland. Northern Ireland itself is a bit confusing, not necessarily a country, but maybe a special county, a semi-autonomous region, we don’t know for sure. 

Anyway, Ireland (the republic) is a bit easier to define. Unlike its Great British neighbors, Ireland is still in the EU. The rest of the UK sits just across the Irish Sea and the two entities have impacted each other for millennia now. Don’t check the watch on that one. 

Ireland’s capital is Dublin, which is also the biggest urban area. Even though about 40% of Ireland’s people live in this one region, there are still other major towns like Cork, Limerick, and Galway. Irish people themselves are pretty homogeneous, being in not too big of a place. Still, immigrant communities are present and well on the island, with many coming from other parts of Europe, the Middle East, East Asia, and Brazil of all places.

rock formation beside sea under white sky, cliffs of Moher on Irish coast
Cliffs of Moher – Henrique Craveiro

Historically, Ireland has been divided into provinces. Namely, they are Connacht, Leinster, Munster, and Ulster. Today they don’t serve much of any administrative purpose, although they do hold value in other ways. Locally, the country is divided into 31 entities; that’s 26 counties, 3 cities, and 2 city-and-counties.

The climate in Ireland is temperate and maritime with mostly mild, cool weather. It can get super rainy but isn’t super snowy. These were great conditions for vast forests, although most of those have been cut down. Most the landscape these days is hilly and pastoral with green fields. A majority of the land is set aside for agriculture. There’s a general central plain that culminates in more highland areas around the edges, especially in the west. Much of the coast is rocky with cliffs. Cliff diving, anyone?

Irish Identity

What’s the craic, lads? C’mon, give me your best Irish accent! We all know it when we hear it, and that’s due in part to the iconic culture of this place. Common social values in Ireland have to do with their unique sense of humor, storytelling, and folklore, an interest in politics and philosophy, admiration for wit, open expression, and the arts, as well as a pride for (and conflict with) the tricky history of the nation. Who really wants to bring up Protestant discrimination, foreign conquest and assimilation, or the several devastating famines? Not me, my friend. 

This sense of pride, though, is one of the very reasons so many Irish abroad are quick to claim their origins. Often, even those with distant Irish descendants are happy to claim where their ancestry. This could be due in part to Irish last names being pretty easily identifiable. 

A lot of them come from Gaelic origin, with names like O’Reilly, O’Hara, MacDonald, McAvoy, Murphy, Flanagan, Kennedy, etc. Oh, and the Normans had something to do with it (Kilpatrick, Kilkenny, Fitzpatrick, Fitzgerald), and the Welsh (Walsh). But hey, there’s a lot more to it. Some of the most iconic parts of Irish culture come from Gaelic roots, such as certain musical styles, dance, dress, and sports. I mean, hurling and Gaelic football are mostly an Ireland thing.

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Farming and small-town life are also significant aspects of Irish identity, given all those agricultural fields we mentioned earlier. Counties play a role in many people’s identities, shaping things like accent and team affiliations, among others. Dublin is a major cultural and arts center, tied in as one of Europe’s most important financial and technology hubs too. It’s also had a lot more English influence over the years as compared to rural Ireland, so Anglo-Irish ID is a bit stronger than elsewhere in the country. 

Irish Folklore

cute lady dressed in St. Patrick's Day outfit as a leprechaun, Irish folklore is known all over the English world
Respect the Lep – pxfuel

Irish folklore has also played a huge role in popular world folklore, especially in places like the U.S. and UK. Just think of how big Saint Patrick’s Day and shamrocks are outside of Ireland. Other major characters popularized (at least partially) by Irish storytellers include fairies, pixies, mermaids, the shapeshifting Pooka, the headless horseman, Dullahan, and most noteworthy of all, yes, leprechauns! Don’t know why I got all excited on that one.

Last one here, I wanted to mention Samhain (Saow-in). This traditional Celtic festival where turnips were used to scare away bad spirits would later evolve into today’s Halloween. Most of us use pumpkins instead of turnips now, but popular media have brought this spooky celebration all over the world. And it all stems back to pagan rituals. Imagine that.

Irish = Catholic?

After Gaelic culture, few things have influenced Irish identity and development like Catholicism. We know there’s a whole lot of controversy here, but what can I say? This Christian denomination is so crucial that it has basically been used as a major distinguisher between who is an “Irish national” and who is an “Irish Brit,” or just “Brit.” Irish from the republic are nominally a lot more Catholic, while those in Northern Ireland are a lot more Protestant. It could seem like a trivial difference, but centuries of squabbling and prejudice have really driven the fork deep between the two sides. 

Even though it’s been a major issue, on and off, many Northern Irish still consider themselves as simply “Irish.” There’s steady talk of Irish unification too. I don’t know enough about it to voice an opinion, and I’m sure not everyone is open to that happening. Still, it shows how there is some mutual respect and cooperation between the two sides of the island. 

The color green is often associated with the country on an international level. Despite conveniently being the color of clovers, it also is associated with the Catholic Church within Ireland (orange is associated with the Protestants). 

Speaking the Gaelic

Irish Gaelic or Gaelige is a co-official language with English. It used to be the main language of the people up to about a hundred or so years ago. At different points in history, Ireland was under the control of Great Britain or England. The most recent time during the Industrial Revolution saw a rise in literacy and other factors that grew the English-speaking population substantially, kind of merking those poor Gaelic speakers. Well, not the speakers themselves, but you get it.

Nowadays, Gaelic has struggled to keep up since many don’t really see a need to learn it. Most fluent speakers happen to be older or from rural areas where Gaelic culture is still strong. Cities or areas that have significant amounts of Gaelic speakers are called Gaeltacht, I’ve gathered. Since it’s not really spoken outside of Ireland, and only spoken by a small percentage within its own country, you can understand why it’s a hard one to sell, especially to the youngsters. 

Still, the language is mandatory in schools and most people know at least as much Gaelic as I know Spanish from my high school classes. There’s also a sense of revival for Gaelic in some communities, much like there is for lots of endangered languages around the globe. Despite not being fluently spoken by many, the language itself serves a sense of Celtic-rooted identity. 

Many words, idioms, and expressions have made their way into the local variety of English. The Irish accent, influenced by Gaelic tongues, Norman and Anglo-Saxon dialects, English, and the several other Gaelic and Brythonic languages nearby have all shaped each other and meshed to influence the local version of English we all recognize today. Cool stuff. 

To hear some people speaking in Gaelic and with Irish accents, watch and listen below!

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Further Reading

About Guyana – The Actual English World

I really like this guy’s channel

What can we say about the nation of Guyana? It’s a fairly small country — well, most countries look small next to Brazil. Guyana is known for its preserved nature, unspoiled rainforests, scenic mountains, and wildlife. It’s a somewhat black, somewhat East Indian, really mixed country all around with a diverse and unique face in the world. Ready to learn more about the English-speaking world? Let’s talk about Guyana.

map of Guyana regions
regions of Guyana

Geography: The Basics

Officially known as the Co-operative Republic of Guyana, the first thing to know is that Guyana’s located in South America. The nation is divided into 10 regions which are broken into smaller divisions called neighborhoods. Each neighborhood, represent! The capital city is Georgetown within the Demerara-Mahaica region.

a wooden building in Georgetown, Guyanese capital
Georgetown – by Dinesh Chandrapal

The country has a total area of about 83,000 square miles (215,000 sq km). That makes it a bit bigger than Belarus and a bit smaller than Laos. The country’s population is over 743 thousand, slightly less than Bhutan or about the same as the city of Seattle.

Guyana on the Globe

political map of the Guianas region with Guyana highlighted in light red
all the Guianas – By ArnoldPlaton

So Guyana is actually part of a larger region called the Guianas. These are a group of countries and parts of countries in northern South America along the Atlantic coast, east of the Orinoco River. It shares land borders with Brazil, Suriname, and Venezuela with which it has an ongoing border dispute.

Most of the people and major towns are on the wet coastal plains, Georgetown included. Otherwise, Guyana has mountains inland at the Guiana Highlands. Mount Roraima is the highest peak which it shares on a 3-point border with Venezuela and Brazil.

Kaieteur Falls, large waterfall in Guyana
Kaieteur Falls – By Sorenriise

The region has a bunch of those table-top mountains called tepuis, made popular in the Pixar movie, Up. The Essequibo is the longest river forming some major islands at its mouth. Also in the highlands is Kaieteur Falls, believed to be the biggest single-drop waterfall in the world!

The Climate

Satellite image of Guyana
Guyana from space – By NASA

Pretty easy to describe, Guyana’s climate is mostly tropical in the whole country. Of course, it is cooler in the highlands and wetter in the lowlands. It is fairly moist throughout the year with a rainier and drier season.

savanna landscape in the Guyanese interior
savanna in Guyana – by Joshua Gobin

The coast and rivers have lots of wet plains, swamps, and mangroves, while sandy hills and savanna appear inland. There’s also a large rainforest region part of the greater Amazon forest system. Guyana has one of the largest and best-preserved forest areas in the world for its size.

What’s the History?

Patamona indians on the kaieteur plateau
Patamona people – By H. I. Perkins, Esq.

Like everywhere else in the Americas, Guyana was first inhabited by a number of indigenous peoples, most notably the Arawak and Carib tribes. The first Europeans that really settled there were the Dutch in the late 1500s, and they were able to set up a few distinct colonies there.

Later in the 1700s, the British took control, as you do. They eventually united the Dutch colonies into one and called it British Guiana, since there were other Guianas. Around this time, Venezuela started to dispute a large area of Guyanese territory as its own, claiming the area as Guayana-Esequiba.

And the claim has never really been resolved. Finally, in the 1970s Guyana gained independence from the UK, even though they’ve remained a part of the Commonwealth ever since.

Read more: about Canada and the British Commonwealth

One Weird Story

There’s one strange part of Guyana’s history that needed its own separate section. Just after its independence in the ’70s, the government leased some land to this obscure American religious movement called the Peoples Temple. Over time, the group formed a cult that got real dangerous real fast.

The group went so far as to shoot down a plane, killing a U.S. Congressman in the process after he had just paid them a visit. If that weren’t enough, the next day the group performed a mass suicide or murder drinking some kind of Kool-Aid rip-off with poison in it. It’s a really random and odd story that is now tied to the history of Guyana. Alrighty then.

Okay … & Culture?

Guyanese teens in extravagant costumes celebrating carnival
Guyanese people during Carnival – posted by Rachel Lovable

Even though Guyana is in South America, it is culturally a lot closer to the Caribbean. It’s considered a part of the greater mainland Caribbean region (places like Belize, Panama, south Florida, etc.), and this shows in the music, speech, cuisine, and other lifestyle aspects of the Guyanese people.

Read more: about Belize

In particular, the culture has strong Anglo-Caribbean ties due to British colonization. This shows in English being the official language and its highly diverse population, hailing heritage from India, China, Africa, Portugal, and other parts of Europe. This also shows in its religions, where most the people are Christian, but there’s a large Hindu minority. There’s a smaller minority of Muslims and other beliefs too.

smiling indigenous Guyanese girls in traditional wear
Guyana’s First Nations – by the BBC

The nation of course gets immigration and influences from neighboring countries, especially the other Guianas. Guyana is one of the poorer nations in the region though, and it faces lots of challenges and corruption despite being a country rich in oil. They share a common history of Dutch colonization, heavy slave and indentured labor, and plantation lifestyles that other places like Suriname had. Even though it’s so diverse, Guyana’s people are centered mostly in a small area, allowing the different people groups to mix in well.

In the isolated areas, indigenous culture is more prominent, stemming from the main groups: Wai-wai, Macushi, Patamona, Lokono, Kalina, Wapishana, Pemon, Akawaio, and Warao. Beyond that, several communities were formed by escaped African slaves called Maroons, adding a unique flavor to Guyanese identity.

Even though Guyana is the only English-speaking country in South America, most people speak Guyanese Creole as a first language. A common feature in most Caribbean countries, Guyana still technically has its own language. Pretty cool.

Guyanese creole / pronunciation

**What do you think about Guyana? Did you know this stuff, or have you learned something new? I hope you can share more information with us, and I hope this article taught you more about the English-speaking world. Thanks for being a reader! Take care out there.

Belize on the Map: Straight Facts

Continuing our quest to explore the world’s English-speaking countries, today we’ll take a look at Belize’s place on the map. Have you ever wondered Where is Belize? Or simply, I want to learn about Belize. Here we’ll see a bit about its geography and help you all understand this place a bit better. Of course, this won’t be a definitive description, so whoever wants to add on to it can feel free to chime in! You can find more about Geography on The Actual English World. And the Geography Now video is below to enjoy. Let’s get started.

A map of Belize highlighting its six districts and nearby islands, reefs and cays.
Belize’s place on the map – from AmbergrisCaye.com

Mapping out Belize

To start off, Belize is a pretty small country, a drastic contrast to our last country, Canada in many ways. The country is broken up into six districts. From north to south:

  • Corozal
  • Orange Walk
  • Belize
  • Stann Creek
  • Cayo
  • & Toledo

Belize has got over 403 thousand people in an area of almost 23,000 square km, or 9,000 square miles. That places Belize as smaller than countries like Haiti or Albania, about the size of states like New Jersey or New Hampshire. It’s also the second-smallest country on the American mainland, but don’t let that fool you! This place has a lot to offer in such a small area.

Belize Geography – Where We At?

Belize has a very interesting place on the map. It sits right at the crossroads of Central America and the Caribbean, making its land features and culture really unique. It’s actually the only country mostly on the mainland to be considered a full Caribbean nation on par with Jamaica or Trinidad & Tobago, even though it does still have lots of little islands and cays. The landscape is generally flatter with plains in the north and gets more hilly and mountainous as you go south. This also goes for traveling from the east coast as you get further inland. At last, you culminate with the Mayan Mountains in the interior of the south. Most of the country has rainforests and jungles too since Belize has some of the best-preserved forests that exist.

The Great Blue Hole, a giant sink hole off the coast of Belize surrounded by coral reefs
the Great Blue Hole off Belize’s coastBy U.S. Geological Survey (USGS)

Going back to the coast, Belize also has lots of reefs. If you’ve seen pictures of this country, you probably know there are tons of reefs, not to mention some giant blue sinkholes. Belize and its neighbors are actually home to the second-biggest reef system in the world after the Great Barrier Reef in Australia (we’ll talk about that one later). That makes it a perfect place for snorkelers and a haven for marine life to grow and reproduce. Put that together with the jungles that are havens for wild creatures like jaguars and you’ve got a pretty big refuge for tons of important critters.

What’s the Weather?

Besides the flatter north to the hillier south, the weather also changes a bit depending on location. North Belize is a bit drier and has a more savanna-type setting. Meanwhile, south Belize is wetter and gets more rain, which can explain the thicker forests down that way. Another thing to keep in mind is the storms. Belize does sit right on the Caribbean and just below the Gulf of Mexico. That means it’s not just a paradise for people, but for hurricanes too! To talk more on that, you might notice that Belize City is the biggest city in the country. It actually used to be the capital, but that all changed when a series of storms knocked it nearly out of place. Nationals picked up and moved their capital to Belmopan which is the current capital, a nice safe distance from the sea (in Cayo district, if you wanted to know).

An example of a hurricane from as seen from space to portray Belize's position in hurricane alley.
live footage of a hurricane over Belize – by Pixabay, Pexels.com

But not to dwell too much on that, you’ll see a common trend of hurricanes in pretty much all the Caribbean/West Indies countries. Belize is still beautiful as heck and has a lot of biodiversity for such a small country. They owe it to their numerous habitats and the protection provided for them.

Enough Map Stuff, Talk About Belize’s History

Okay, I feel you. You want to know about some history. I know this isn’t a history post, but you might know that Belize is the only country in Central America where English is the official language. That doesn’t mean Spain didn’t try to take it. Spanish sailors were actually the first Europeans to claim what we call Belize, but they didn’t really care to settle it. In fact, they cared so little that eventually the British swooped in and just took it for themselves. Caught you sleeping, Spain. Well, even with that, the country was called British Honduras for a pretty long while because Honduras is what Columbus called that whole bay region. It wasn’t until the 1970s that the name was changed to Belize, and the country became independent from Great Britain only in the 1980s. That’s not even that long ago.

Belize of course had a big African slave trade initially which brought tons of black people to the country. There were also lots of migrants from other Caribbean countries like Jamaica which continues to this day. Before Europeans, the region was inhabited by indigenous Americans, most noticeably the Mayans. Proof of this exists all across the country with majestic Mayan ruins being a major tourist draw and source of general awe. There have also been many other migrations from neighboring countries like Mexico, Guatemala, and Honduras of people seeking refuge from war, violence, or poverty. You also have migrants from further in the past like the Russian Mennonites, Pennsylvania Dutch, and American Southerners who were looking for religious freedom, cheaper land and whatnot.

An example of a Mayan temple ruin you might find in Belize
Mayan ruins – by Cristian Rojas, Pexels.com

OK, Now You’re Talking Belizean Culture

Even with all of those diverse cultural influences already listed, I still didn’t talk about the South and East Asian (mostly from India and China) communities that were taken to Belize to do the work that slaves used to do. And I’m sure that I’m forgetting somebody. Oh, yes, the Garifuna! The Garifuna are mostly descendants of Africans that were able to escape slavery or ended up shipwrecked and founded their own communities on the Caribbean coast. Most of the other countries in Central America have Garifuna or related cultures, but we won’t talk about them in this section since those countries speak mostly Spanish. Still, it’s an interesting fact to know. Garifuna, no matter where they live, much like the rest of Belize, speak a creole language (in Belize’s case, Kriol), although their creoles are a bit different. Here you can read some examples of Kriol phrases.

That’s right, even though English is the official language and most people can speak or understand it, Creole is the main language for a large portion of the people. It’s a more informal way of speech, but it serves a lot for the national identity of Belizeans no matter what their ethnicity or background is. Besides that, it’s kind of interesting as an American seeing people who look Mexican/Mestizo or Chinese speaking Belizean Creole.

What Else You Got?

Much like Canada, Belize is also a Commonwealth state of the British Crown. If you want to read about Canada, I explain more in-depth what the Commonwealth is (kind of). Otherwise, just know that Belize was part of Great Britain for a long time before it became an independent state. Like most Caribbean nations, Belize celebrates versions of Carnival and has some special events of its own. September is considered an entire month of festivities and celebrations by itself. Because of nearby Latin American contact, there are some Spanish-influenced traditions as well, and many people even have Spanish surnames. Spanish itself is widely spoken in Belize too, given that most of the population is multilingual in at least two of the national languages like Creole, Garifuna, or the several German and Mayan dialects used throughout.

In Closing

So that’s that! I hope you enjoyed mapping Belize with me. It’s a spectacular country with tons of diversity right up in your face. It’s colorful, tropical, all kinds of paradise and beautiful. It may be English-speaking, but Belize has a whole identity unique to its own. Comment below if you love Belize. If you’re Belizean or know some Belizeans, please tell me how I did. What do you have to add about this compact powerhouse? Can you teach us some words in your language? Be well, and I’ll be writing to you soon!

Canada on the Map: Straight Facts

A vertical triband design (red, white, red) with a red maple leaf in the center.
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We’re starting off a new section here in CultSurf just to give you all a bit of variety. We’ve been discussing culture, society, music, and movies from around the globe (mostly the USA, sorry, I’m a little biased). Some of you might be interested in learning more about the in-depth characteristics of English-speaking countries. We won’t focus too much on culture here, but more on geography and a few other things. I was really inspired by Geography Now on YouTube and I enjoy their channel, so I’ll share their video with the corresponding countries if they’ve made it already. They make videos about all the world’s countries from A-Z, so it might take a while for them to reach Zimbabwe, for example.

What does an American know about Canada?

So obviously I won’t be writing about myself or Americans that know a lot about Canada. I’m speaking about what I knew about the country before I started learning geography, and what my fellow citizens may or may not know already.

Happy Canadian here – Photo by Pixabay on Pexels.com
  • We know about some cities like Toronto and Vancouver, probably Montréal. Some of us like the name Newfoundland and joke at how hard it can be to pronounce.
  • We know it’s freezing up there. We’ve seen those pictures of polar bears walking through town.
  • Moose, caribou, Northern Lights, and the Arctic is somewhere up there.
  • We have to cross it to get to Alaska.
  • Funny accents, eh? And syrup, lots of bacon and syrup.

The Provinces & Cities (and Territories)

As we see on our lovely map, Canada has 10 subdivisions called provinces, plus another 3 called territories.

A map of Canada showing its 10 provinces and 3 territories
The easiest map I could find on Wikipedia

Central Canada has the two biggest provinces, Ontario and Quebec. This is also where you find the two biggest cities, Toronto and Montréal. It’s known as central Canada even though it’s not directly in the middle of the country. That’s because historically these were the main places to be settled by the British and French as the colony known as Canada. Later they spread out and acquired more land. These places have the most people and are the biggest economic and cultural influencers in the country. They’re also massive, reaching from the Great Lakes all the way up to the northern tundra!

The smallest provinces are in the general Atlantic Maritimes region, which are Newfoundland and Labrador, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick. These areas were among the last to really join Canada as a united country. They had lots of immigration from Scotland and Ireland, and have a much stronger sea culture than the rest of the country. They’re sort of like the New England of Canada. They were also the main places that welcomed British Loyalist soldiers during and after the American War for Independence.

Then there’s out West. This area can be thought of generally as the Great Plains and mountains of Canada. Here we have Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, and British Columbia, though B.C. can also be thought of as the West Coast province. These were lands acquired after Central Canada was already set up, and are known for big open spaces, farming and agriculture, and lots of mountain stuff. There is major business and cultural influence coming from this part of Canada too, especially since Calgary and Vancouver are major global centers.

And then there were the Territories; Northwest Territories, the Yukon, and Nunavut. These, generally speaking, are three massive landmasses (haha) way up in the tundra and arctic of North America. They are very, very, very scarcely populated and mostly got attention during the gold rush years, especially in Yukon. Otherwise there’s lots of ice and natural beauty, but I’m pretty sure they’re the least known region of the country overall.

Notre-Dame Basilica, Montreal – By Diego Delso

A little about the cities, you have Toronto, Ontario, the biggest in the country, that is known as one of the most, if not the most, ethnically diverse cities in the world. I think about half the city is non-white, if not more, and even the white population is pretty diverse there. The capital, Ottawa, is in Ontario as well. A lot of the world-famous artists from Canada come from this lower area of Ontario, like Justin Bieber, Drake, The Weekend, and so on. Niagara Falls is the home of those same falls, and Mississauga has some cool spacey architecture.

Montréal is the 2nd biggest mostly French-speaking city in the world and is also extremely diverse, as is the rest of Canada. Québec is a very traditional European-looking city, especially in the old town. Halifax, Nova Scotia and St. John’s, Newfoundland are important port cities and historic centers. Edmonton is the capital of Alberta and the biggest city in the world for how far north it is. Calgary is also a very big city and cultural center. Some other major cities worth your research are Victoria, Saskatoon, Regina, Winnipeg, and St. John.

What are They?

So we know Canada has provinces, not states. The provinces actually are quite similar to states in how they are run, and many freedoms that the United States are allowed, so too are the Canadian provinces. Provinces, in general, tend to come from more Empirical powers (like the United Kingdom was) and so this name stems from historical association. The United States were also at once independent states that united, while Canada’s provinces have mostly been under the rule of Britain except for a few exceptions.

Canada stayed loyal and sympathetic to Britain for much longer than the U.S. which could explain many things about their cultural identity. Otherwise, the territories are similar to territories of any country. Even though they are huge, they have tiny populations. This makes it so that their representation is a little less relevant on the national scale, and so they do in fact have less representation.

Canada the year the British colonies united – By Unknown author

And the Commonwealth?

Like with province, there’s no universal definition of what a commonwealth really is. Puerto Rico and Guam, for example, are commonwealths of the U.S. Still, the British Commonwealth states have a lot more autonomy and are all considered their own sovereign states with some more or less cordial ties to Britain. The Monarch really only has a say in cases of a complete national or political emergency really, but otherwise Canadians are Canadians and not Brits. Although as I said before, they do and did keep stronger ties with Britain (and France, for that matter) over the years than the U.S. did.

Canada’s English-Speaking. What About Québec?

Good question. Canada traditionally had two main European colonizers: the English/British and the French. You’ll actually see this in a lot of English-speaking countries, where France took the colony from Britain or Britain took it from France and so there is a lot of mixed historical identity. Think of Louisiana, St. Lucia, or Cameroon. Geographically, Canada’s French-speaking population stuck mostly to one general area, giving this group a more distinct identity. People from Québec have long had mixed feelings about Canada, some wanting to separate into their own independent place while others just want more autonomy (not to mention those who don’t really care either way). Speaking English, French, or Punjabi, they’re all Canadians in the end.

Generally, there is pride in the history of French Canada, the part of Canada where the country got its name from. English and French are both official languages in the nation, but French is a lot stronger in Québec province, along with a few pockets of places in the neighboring provinces. You also get St. Pierre and Miquelon, which is an overseas territory of France (something like French Guiana, although it’s a full-on department of France) that borders Newfoundland and is fully French.

Talk More About Diversity

Canada is really one of the most diverse countries there is, and this is due to its historic reputation as an open arm for immigrants. The Asian (East and South) population and impact on Canadian culture is huge. German and Scandinavian identity is big in some regions, not to mention the largest communities of Icelandic and Ukrainian descendants outside those countries live in Canada. The country has also welcomed many from other Commonwealth states and former colonies, such as Caribbeans and Guyanese, Africans, Indians, and Pakistanis. The most influential though, hands down, have been the British and French.

Canada’s a diverse place – Photo by Gemma Chua-Tran on Unsplash

Most Canadians live within a few hundred miles from the U.S. border which also impacts the culture. Northern Americans and most Canadians have a fluid cultural and societal mixture that influences one and the other. This is especially true of migration, business, and the arts. Lots of Canadians have American ancestry and vice-versa. And of course, the first occupants of the continent have had a huge impact on the country. In Canada, they are generally referred to as First Nations, and they themselves are as diverse and influential as the later foreigners that would create modern Canada. They generally are considered two main groups, the traditional people most of us think of as Native or indigenous Americans, and the Inuits, a set of people with a bit different ancestry.

Let’s End with Some Actual Geography!

Canada has a land area of over 3.5 million square miles, making it the second biggest country in the world after Russia. It has a population of about 38 million, less than countries like South Korea, Spain, and Uganda, which are way smaller. I mean, compare them on a map. The Maritimes are mostly chilly and rainy with oceanic climates and many pretty islands. The northern continuation of the Appalachian Mountain system goes up here, and way up North in Labrador to Nunavut you get the Arctic Cordillera range of tall, jagged, arctic mountains.

Thefalls.jpg
Kakabeka Falls in Ontario – By Hgsyro

The south of Central Canada borders the U.S. by way of the super-important St. Lawrence River system, as well as the Great Lakes. This area is very hospitable and is where the biggest urban areas are concentrated. You also get big waterfalls and some dense forests on up to Hudson Bay which supports a kind of wet plain. It usually freezes over and so this is a major crossing ground for Arctic animals like polar bears. The middle of the country has an outstanding number of lakes, and the north is especially stocked with some of the biggest forests and highest amount of lakes on planet Earth.

Going back down, you get a general plains and prairies region that goes on till you hit some mountains. These are essentially the Canadian extension of the Rockies, and they go up all the way to the Yukon and even into Alaska. You have a fertile yet somewhat dry valley between those and the coastal mountains and rainy forests which also extend into Alaska. Above all that stuff is basically a large stretch of lakes, cold plains, forests, and taiga (basically a tundra with some scattered trees). Tundra covers most of that very northern part of the country where it steadily transitions into polar landscapes. This is especially true of the massive islands of Nunavut which reach all the way up to the North Pole (and Santa! Oh wait, he’s Scandinavian)

That’s all, you curious geography lovers! I hope you enjoyed mapping out this huge and special country called Canada. As promised, here is the Geography Now video. Please comment if you like Canada. If you are from there (howdy neighbor) comment if you want to teach us more about your fabulous home! Thanks, and we’ll be talking soon.

If you liked this, you might also like to read about the U.S. geography with Aren’t all the U.S. states and cities basically the same? – Regional diversity in the USA. Tell me what you think, and enjoy 😉

Other fun facts about Canada: https://www.canadianaffair.com/blog/how-big-is-canada/